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【亚博app下载安装】双语科技百科(数学) 第31期 算盘和珠算

发布时间:2021-06-02    来源:亚博APP手机版29684

本文摘要:Abacus and Calculation with an Abacus算筹和珠算In 2007,the British newspaper The Independent listed 101 small inven-tions that changed the world,among which,the Chinese abacus which has enjoyed a history of 2,000 years or so,ranked the first.2007年,英国《独立报》票选出有10l款转变世界的小发明,分列在第一位是有将近2000年历史的中国算筹。

Abacus and Calculation with an Abacus算筹和珠算In 2007,the British newspaper The Independent listed 101 small inven-tions that changed the world,among which,the Chinese abacus which has enjoyed a history of 2,000 years or so,ranked the first.2007年,英国《独立报》票选出有10l款转变世界的小发明,分列在第一位是有将近2000年历史的中国算筹。算筹是中国古代一项最出色的发明者。

The abacus was a great invention in ancient China. The abacus was invented on the basis that Chinese used the counting-rod for a long period.In ancient times,people used small rods to count. Later, with the development of productivi-ty,the amount requiring calculation was greater, and calculation aith counting-rods limited the calculation. Thus,people invented a more advanced counter-the abacus.盘是中国人在长年用于筹算的基础上发明者的。古时候,人们用小木棍展开计算出来,这些小木棍叫“筹算”,用“筹算”作为工具展开的计算出来叫“十进位制”。

后来,随着生产的发展,必须计算出来的数目更加大,用小木棍计算出来受到了容许,于是,人们又发明者了更加先进设备的计算器—算筹。The earliest known painting of the Chinese abacus can be found in the famous long scroll Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival painted by Zhang Zeduan(1085-1145)during the Song Dynasty(960一1297).There,an abacus is clearly seen 1y-ing beside an account book on the counter of an apothecary’s.最先的算筹图闻北宋画家张择端(1085一1145)的《清明上河图》长卷。

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画卷上一家药铺柜台上账本左边,一个算筹清晰可见。The abacus is rectangular with wooden frame on the four sides and small rods fixed inside strung with wooden beads;a girder across the middle separates the abacus into two parts:each rod has two beads on its upper part, each represen-ting five,and five beads on the lower part,each representing one.算筹是长方形的,四周是木框,里面相同一根根小木棍,小木棍上穿著木珠,中间有一根横梁把算筹分为两部分:每根木棍的上半部有两个珠子,每个珠子代表五;下半部有五个珠子,每个珠子代表一。With the application of the abacus,people summarized many abacus rhymes,increasing the calculating speed.By the time of the Ming Dynasty, people could use the abacus in addition,subtraction,multiplication and division,which were widely used in calculating weight, amount,space and volume.随着算筹的用于,人们总结出有许多计算出来口诀,使计算出来的速度更加慢了。这种用算筹计算出来的方法,叫珠算。

到了明代,珠算已能展开加减乘除的运算,普遍用作计算出来物体的重量、数量、面积、体积等。Since it is simple to make an abacus and cheap to buy one,and it is easy to remember abacus rhymes,simple and convenient to calculate with an abacus,it is widely used in China. There are many experts in the use of the abacus in all trades and professions,and some people can use an abacus with iwo hands at the same time.由于算筹制作非常简单,价格便宜,珠算口诀便于记忆,运算又简单,所以算筹在中国被普遍用于。中国各行各业都有一批打算盘的高手,而且有的人能用左右两只手同时打算盘。Later the abacus was gradually spread into Japan,Korea,America,and countries and regions in Southeast Asia. People frnd that using an abacus can im-prove thinking and practical abilities in addition to providing convenient calculation.Since it requires cooperation of the mind,eyes and hand,it is a good way to im-prove the comprehensive reaction ability.算筹后来相继流传到了日本、朝鲜、美国和东南亚等国家和地区。

人们在用于过程中找到,用于算筹,除了运算便利以外,还有磨练思维能力和动手能力的起到。因为打算盘必须脑、眼、手的密切配合,是训练综合反应能力的一种好方法。


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